ADVANTURE OF KARAKUM DESERT

The Karakum Desert is a vast arid land expanse located in Central Asia mainly situated in Turkmenistan covering more than 80% of this country

GENERAL INFORMATION

Turkmenistan is the young Independent and Neutral State located in Central Asia to the north of Kopetdag Mountains, between the Caspian Sea, in the West and Amu Darya River in the east.

The territory of Turkmenistan is extended 1100 km. from east to west and 650 km. from north to south. The total area of the state is 491.2 thousand sq. km. Population is 6 million people.

Turkmenistan borders with Kazakhstan in the north, with Uzbekistan in the east and northeast, with Iran in the south, with Afghanistan in the south-east. The northern and the central part of the territory of Turkmenistan is occupied by sandy deserts of the Turan plain, the Central, Zaungus and Southeast Karakums (as a whole, about 80% of the territory).

Ashgabat is the capital of Turkmenistan.

Climate is sharply continental, droughty, with a hot and dry summer period. The average temperature of January is +4С, July +28С.

The State language is Turkmen. English and Russian are the languages of International Communication.

The President of Turkmenistan is the highest official of the country. The first President of Neutral and Independent Turkmenistan was Saparmyrat Turkmenbashy.

The currency of Turkmenistan is the Manat, introduced on November 1, 1993.

Administrative centers: Ashgabat (Ahal region), Balkanabad (Balkan region), Dashoguz (Dashoguz region), Turkmenabad (Lebap region), Mary (Mary region).

Turkmenistan includes 5 regions – velayats, each of them with unique features.

 

HISTORY OF TURKMENISTAN

According to historians’ assessments, history of civilizations which existed on this land in the past accounted for five thousand years. Remains of those ancient cultures can be found here almost anywhere: in the desert and at foothills of mountains, along the channels of dried rivers and in caves. Traces of human activity have been preserved in the form of implements, domestic utensils and real works of art made of stone and bone, ceramics and metal, including bronze, silver and gold. But it is the architecture that makes us recollect distant ancestors of the Turkmens starting from the earthenware houses, sanctuaries and formerly inaccessible fortresses of the ancient world to the luxurious palaces and temples of the Middles Ages. Certainly, few things that local towns were renowned for had escaped destruction and remained intact till nowadays.

Turkmenistan is a country of the oldest civilizations, having made a significant contribution to the development of the world culture. Modern Turkmenistan borders were first to appear in the world along with India and Middle East. Historical sources prove that in the III-II millennium BC two big states, which consolidated nations living far from each other in the desert and river valleys, were established on the territory of present-day Turkmenistan.

In the 4th century B.C., the Persian Empire was defeated by the army of Alexander the Great. In 330 B.C., Alexander marched northward into central Asia and founded the city of Alexandria near the Murgab River. Located on an important trade route, Alexandria later became the city of Merv (modern Mary). The ruins of Alexander’s ancient city are still visible along the banks of the Murgab River.

After Alexander’s death in 323 B.C., his generals fought for control of his empire, which quickly fell apart. The Scythians—fierce, nomadic warriors from the north—then established the kingdom of Parthia, which covered present-day Turkmenistan and Iran. The Parthian kings ruled their domain from the ancient city of Nisa. At its height, Parthia extended south and west as far as the Indus River in modern India.

During the leadership of King Mitridat II (128-84 BC) Parthia became one of the Great States of that period. And during the existence of the Parthian State the city Merv was declared as the center of main Trade and work. Parthia fell in A.D. 224 to the Sasanian rulers of Persia. At the same time, several groups—including the Alans and the Huns—were moving into Turkmenistan from the east and north. A branch of the Huns wrested control of southern Turkmenistan from the Sasanian Empire in the 5th century A.D.

Central Asia came under Arab control after a series of invasions in the late 7th and early 8th centuries. Meanwhile, the Oguz—the ancestors of the Turkmen—were migrating from eastern Asia into central Asia, the Middle East, and Asia Minor (modern Turkey). The Arab conquest brought the Islamic religion to the Oguz and to the other peoples of central Asia.

Turkmenistan is a country of the oldest civilizations, having made a significant contribution to the development of the world culture. Modern Turkmenistan borders were first to appear in the world along with India and Middle East. Historical sources prove that in the III-II millennium BC two big states, which consolidated nations living far from each other in the desert and river valleys, were established on the territory of present-day Turkmenistan.

In the 4th century B.C., the Persian Empire was defeated by the army of Alexander the Great. In 330 B.C., Alexander marched northward into central Asia and founded the city of Alexandria near the Murgab River. Located on an important trade route, Alexandria later became the city of Merv (modern Mary). The ruins of Alexander’s ancient city are still visible along the banks of the Murgab River.

After Alexander’s death in 323 B.C., his generals fought for control of his empire, which quickly fell apart. The Scythians—fierce, nomadic warriors from the north—then established the kingdom of Parthia, which covered present-day Turkmenistan and Iran. The Parthian kings ruled their domain from the ancient city of Nisa. At its height, Parthia extended south and west as far as the Indus River in modern India.

During the leadership of King Mitridat II (128-84 BC) Parthia became one of the Great States of that period. And during the existence of the Parthian State the city Merv was declared as the center of main Trade and work. Parthia fell in A.D. 224 to the Sasanian rulers of Persia. At the same time, several groups—including the Alans and the Huns—were moving into Turkmenistan from the east and north. A branch of the Huns wrested control of southern Turkmenistan from the Sasanian Empire in the 5th century A.D.

Central Asia came under Arab control after a series of invasions in the late 7th and early 8th centuries. Meanwhile, the Oguz—the ancestors of the Turkmen—were migrating from eastern Asia into central Asia, the Middle East, and Asia Minor (modern Turkey). The Arab conquest brought the Islamic religion to the Oguz and to the other peoples of central Asia.

 

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